Category Archives: New York City

Buskers are Protesting Crackdown from NYPD on 2nd Avenue Subway

OK give up. What are BUSKERS? According to the WIKI: “Street performance or busking is the act of performing in public places for gratuities. In many countries the rewards are generally in the form of money but other gratuities such as food, drink or gifts may be given.”

We all know who the NYPD is: Largest and most heavily-armed police force in the “free World”. Larger than armies of most countries.

So what is the big hassle between NYPD and the Buskers?

Less than three weeks have passed since the Second Avenue Subway line made its long-awaited debut, yet conflict is already brewing between the station’s buskers and the NYPD. On Thursday afternoon, around a dozen subway performers gathered in the mezzanine of the 72nd Street station to protest what they view as illegal harassment by police seeking to keep the newly opened stations busker-free.

While the MTA’s rules of conduct explicitly allow for artistic performances within stations, many officers and station managers seem to remain ignorant of the three-decade-old rule.

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Busk NY posted a video showing two police officers asking violinist Matthew Christian to leave the 86th Street station last weekend.

“You cannot play music here. Sir, I’m asking you to leave. If you don’t want to leave, we can place you in handcuffs and you can leave then,” one of the officers said, adding ” it’s unlawful to play music on the platform.”

It is not illegal to perform on the platform, nor is it against the MTA (New York City Metropolitan Transortation Authority) rules, unless it’s getting in the way of foot traffic.

“Whenever there’s public scrutiny at stations the police step up enforcement of what they perceive to be minor violations”.

The MTA said any musician is welcome to perform in the subway as long as they follow the rules of conduct.

A band of city buskers sang a sad song Thursday, claiming overzealous cops are unfairly harassing them on the Second Ave. subway line.

The musicians and artists said they were forced to speak out after enduring a rash of recent police confrontations inside the gleaming new stations on the Upper East Side.

“This is particularly ironic given that the MTA has highlighted the stations for promoting public art,” grumbled Matthew Christian, co-founder of Busk NY, a group representing subway performers.

A band of city buskers sang a sad song Thursday, claiming overzealous cops are unfairly harassing them on the Second Ave. subway line.

The musicians and artists said they were forced to speak out after enduring a rash of recent police confrontations inside the gleaming new stations on the Upper East Side.

“This is particularly ironic given that the MTA has highlighted the stations for promoting public art,” grumbled Matthew Christian, co-founder of Busk NY, a group representing subway performers.

Musicians are allowed to perform underground as long as they follow certain rules such as avoiding busy areas and not using amplifiers.
But mandolin player Marc Orleans said he was doing none of those things Wednesday when a cop ordered him to leave a subway platform at the 72nd Ave. station and move to the mezzanine level.

“I told him I’d do it this time but I’m within my rights,” said Orleans, 49. “This happens all the time, where the police just seem like they’re not adequately trained.”

Artist David Everitt-Carlson whipped out a summons he received last weekend for setting up an art exhibit tucked behind a station elevator.
“This was surprising to me,” said Carlson, 60, of the East Village. “We’ve been on the Highline for four years and have never had issues.”

Busted subway busker reveals why he refused“The MTA is proud to support and promote the arts and musical performances,” said spokesman Kevin Ortiz. “Any musician is welcome to perform in the New York City subway system as long as they follow the Transit Rules of Conduct.”

NYPD Transit Chief Joseph Fox said officers monitoring subway stations are forced to perform a delicate balancing act.

“Our officers work to protect the rights of everyone who lawfully uses the transit system — artistic performers and commuters alike,” Fox said. “This often means a balance between protecting the uniquely New York experience performers provide, while at the same time ensuring safe passage for subway riders.”

New York’s New Second Avenue Subway Has Already Become A Culture Destination!

“There are several contenders for coolest neighborhood in New York, but the Upper East Side is usually not one of them.”

Musicians can also perform even if they are not part of the MTA’s Music Under New York program.

But the group Busk NY says police harrassment has become common at the new stations.

The MTA issued a statement saying it is proud to support arts and musical performances.

It goes on to say, “Any musician is welcome to perform in the New York City subway system as long as they follow the Transit Rules of Conduct.”

2nd Avenue Subway Is Open For REAL Now

Hard to believe it, but the fabeled 2nd Avenue Subway is NOW OPEN FOR BUSINESS!!!

Riders on Tuesday, the first full day of Second Ave. subway service after the New Year’s holiday, said they were relieved to finally ditch the congested Lexington Ave. line, long walks across avenues to the train and painfully slow crosstown buses for the Q line that is now at their doorstep.

See more pictures. YES, it is for real!

Hundreds came out New Year’s Day to ride the train in New York City, cheering as it left the station. That may sound odd, but this wasn’t just any subway or any old station, it was the stuff of urban legend: the Second Avenue subway line.

To understand the crowd, you have to go back to the 1920s when the idea for the subway line was first floated, but never left the station because the Depression hit.

The idea was revived again in the 1950s as a replacement for the elevated trains, but city planner Robert Moses decided to spend money building expressways instead.

In 1968, the city finally got federal funding to build a subway on Second Avenue. It was expected to cost $220 million. The TV show Mad Men even worked in a reference to the plan when Peggy Olson, one of the main characters, goes apartment hunting on the East Side that year on the show.

But it didn’t happen because in 1975 the city was broke.

By the 1990s overcrowding on the sole East side line had become untenable so the idea for a Second Avenue subway line was revived, and in 2004, a plan was approved. The first phase would include three new stations that go from 72nd Street to 96th Street. The Metropolitan Transit Authority even gave a deadline: 2013. And a cost: $3.8 billion.

But the public was skeptical, as that deadline was pushed back to 2015 and costs crept up. The MTA finally settled on Dec. 31, 2016.

On New Year’s Eve, at a newly renovated station on 72nd Street, Gov. Andrew Cuomo held an opening night party. There was a five-piece band, a newsstand was converted into a beer bar, and the cavernous station was filled with purple, pink and orange lights. The governor helped secure more than a billion dollars in federal funding for the project and the MTA, and appoints their board members. At the New Year’s Eve party he told the more than 500 invited guests that the Second Avenue Subway is vindication of his vision.

“We needed to show people that government works and we can still do big things and great things and we can still get them done,” Cuomo said.

Governor Andrew M. Cuomo celebrated the on-time arrival of the Second Avenue Subway – the system’s first major expansion in more than 50 years – with the line’s inaugural ride. The new line’s first ride and celebratory party were cohosted by MTA Chairman and CEO Thomas F. Prendergast and attended by Second Avenue Subway and MTA workers, local community members, dignitaries, local elected officials and members of President Obama’s Cabinet. Attendees rode to each of the new stations and will ring in the New Year with a celebratory countdown and toast at the 72nd Street station.

FINALLY! The Second Avenue Subway is HERE!

Picture above: 72ndStreet: Vik Muniz, Perfect Strangers. Glass mosaic and laminated glass, fabricated by Franz Mayer of Munich.

New York City’s Second Avenue Subway is an Underground Wonderland
More than a century in the making, New York’s Second Avenue Subway opens for business on New Years Eve 2017.

The mood was festive on the first train, with many riders wearing hats that read Second Avenue Station, including Jessica Hauser and her boyfriend, Neil Smith, who both live on the Upper East Side.

“I can see my friends in Brooklyn much easier now,” Hauser said. “It’s really great to have another subway nearby. I think it’s going to release a lot of pressure from the 4, 5 and 6 trains. Especially in the morning when I have to sometimes wait for a second or third train, since they’re so packed.”

It is hard to imagine that this is the culmination of a plan proposed first in the 1920s. However, the rails to get here wasn’t a smooth ride for people who live in the area.

All the hazards of construction are almost forgotten at the sight of new pavement and better access to the subway.

“The nice change is right in front of my building, they put out trees, we had porta potties there for a few years, and the trees are much prettier,” says resident Micki Avedon.

The area feels like a new neighborhood, giving business and people who live in the area plenty to celebrate.

The nearly 2-mile segment adds stations along Second Avenue at 96th, 86th and 72nd streets and a new connection to an existing subway line at 63rd Street.

Seen as crucial to alleviating congestion in the nation’s biggest subway system, it is on a line expected to carry about 200,000 riders a day. The entire system transports about 5.6 million riders on an average weekday.

The city’s transportation board first envisioned a Second Avenue subway in 1929, but the stock market crash and the Great Depression derailed the plan.

Ground was broken in 1972, but a fiscal crisis in the city slammed the brakes on the project again. The project finally got into high gear when major tunneling work began in 2007.

The $4.4 billion section opening Sunday was initially supposed to be completed in 2013. Delays stemmed partly from concerns about construction noise.

Next, the line is slated to expand north into East Harlem. No date has been set for starting that phase of construction.

Second Ave Subway’s ceremonial first ride will be a New Year’s party for city officials

While the rest of us will be spending our New Year’s Eve elsewhere, Governor Andrew Cuomo is planning on spending his on the inaugural New Year’s Eve ride for the long-awaited Second Avenue Subway line, reports Gothamist.

The celebratory ride will take Governor Cuomo, along with Mayor Bill de Blasio, MTA Chairman Thomas Prendergast, city and state officials, and the press from the 72nd Street stop to each of the new stations, beginning at 10:30 p.m. As for the rest of us, we’ll have to wait until January 1st, when the Second Avenue Subway officially opens to the public at 6 a.m. with limited service.

“I am proud to ring in the New Year on the Second Avenue Subway and welcome a new era in New York where there is no challenge too great, no project too grand and all is possible,” Cuomo said.

The ceremonial ride is being co-sponsored by several organizations that include the Central Park Conservancy, Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Mets, and more.

On Thursday, December 22nd, the MTA held an “open house” at the 96th Street station, giving the public a first real glimpse inside the new subway stop. Check out a few of those flicks below.

Controversial but long overdue is a portrait of a gay couple in the 72nd Street Station

2ndavesubwaygaycouple

2nd Avenue Subway Moving Right Along!!

New York Gov. Andrew Cuomo has been pushing the end-of-the-year deadline set by the Metropolitan Transportation Authority hard in recent days, saying it’s become about more than the long-delayed Second Avenue subway — it’s about the faith people have in government.
“Nobody believes it’s going to be done on time, nobody,” the Democratic governor said in a radio interview this week. But, he added, “if we can get it done on time. … if we can open that thing up at the beginning of the year, maybe people will start to say once again, “Wow. Maybe we can do something.”

The Second Avenue subway, seen as crucial to alleviating traffic on one of the world’s busiest transit systems, has been star-crossed since it was first envisioned by the city’s transportation board in 1929. Those plans were derailed by the stock market crash a few months later.

It wasn’t until 1972 that ground was finally broken on the project. But again, a financial crisis in the nation’s most populous city in the 1970s put to a halt to work. In the 1990s, two powerful U.S. senators from New York were able to secure vital federal funds. But then there were years of bureaucratic hurdles: zoning changes, environmental studies and pre-construction work to clear the city’s underground of pipes and cables.

In 2007, the major tunneling work began on the $4.4 billion project that’s now set to open: a four-station, nearly 2-mile expansion of an existing subway line from Lexington Avenue and 63rd Street to 96th Street, with stops at 72nd and 86th streets in between. .
It was supposed to be completed in 2013.

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Second Avenue Subway Will Roll January First; Where Will Gov. Cuomo Shoot At Next?

Governor Cuomo was throwing his weight around. Put another way: There better not be any screwups under his watch because a new age of public construction had dawned in New York State. Over the past year and a half, Cuomo said he had “taken a personal hands-on approach, and that’s the only way you get things built.”

First proposed during the Roaring 20s, the Second Avenue line was meant to be a muscular addition to the system’s capacity, bustling with passenger activity and energy from Hanover Square to East Harlem or beyond.That was the plan. Then the 20th century happened.Plans were shelved during the Great Depression and World War II. Federal funds were allocated in the 1970s, but the city’s fiscal crisis put the project on hold again.After nearly 100 years of stops and starts and delays, we’re left not with a bold new line running the length of the world’s busiest island, but a $4.5 billion extension of the Q line three stops to 96th.

Earlier this year, the MTA dedicated funds for the second phase of the line up to 125th.

There are other megaprojects for NYC to turn its attention to as well — starting with the $10 billion East Side Access project which includes nearly two miles of new tunneling to bring the LIRR to Grand Central Station, reshaping travel to and from LI.

Now Governor Andrew Cuomo Says 2nd Avenue Subway Will Meet Deadline

Everybody but everybody is getting into the act on “will the 2nd Avenue Subway open on time”.

Just a few days we reported on the many “nay sayers” regarding opening: EVERYBODY IS SOUNDING OFF ABOUT 2ND AVENUE SUBWAY OPENING DELAY

But Andrew Cuomo, the guy above the many heads at New York’s Metropolitan Transportation Authority, and also the Governor of the State of New York has his own opinions. He is the guy in the picture above looking upwards and not wearing a safety helmet.

Gov. Andrew Cuomo said he “would bet” on the Second Avenue subway’s first phase opening before the year’s end.

After visiting the still-under-construction 72nd Street station on Friday, the governor appeared confident in meeting the project’s Dec. 31 deadline during a Sunday radio appearance on “The Cats Roundtable” with John Catsimatidis.

“We have a few weeks, and if I had to bet, John, and it was even money, I would bet that we make it,” Cuomo said. “We still have a lot of work to do. It’s a complex project … we’re going to work every day between now and Dec. 31, I can tell you that, to make sure we hit the deadline.”

The subway line has been talked about for nearly a century. Construction on the project had suffered fits and starts over past decades due to lack of funding. Cuomo said during the interview that the “the incompetence and the delays are one of the things that lead to the disgust of the people of this state and this country.”

When the stations do open, the Q train will continue north up Second Avenue, where it will serve approximately 200,000 daily riders. The MTA has said that the new stations would help reduce the overcrowding, and the related delays, along the nearby Lexington Avenue line.

“The Second Avenue subway was supposed to be done by the end of this year and there was a move early on,” Cuomo continued. “People thought we should probably move the deadline. And I said, ‘No, we’re going to stick to the deadline and we’re going to work like hell to make it,’ and that’s exactly what we’re doing.”

Cuomo followed his Sunday interview with a tour of the 86th Street station. His office said that crews are now working 24 hours a day, seven days a week, to deliver the project on time.

governorcuomoinspects2ndavesubway

Now, THAT is
leadership for you!!!

Everybody Is Sounding Off About 2nd Avenue Subway Opening Delay

Even the Jewish Voice of NY is after the MTA to announce a completion date:

The Metropolitan Transportation Authority has long been promising to open the first phase of the Second Avenue subway by January 2017. While granted the undertaking of a new subway line beneath NY’s infrastructure is a formidable task, still a promise is a promise and we have waited patiently for seven years for this agreed upon time to arrive. The subway station has been on the to-do-list since back in the 1930s. “This multibillion-dollar project has taken decades to finish and the MTA owes it to residents and small businesses to wrap up construction as soon as possible,” said Councilman Ydanis Rodriguez. “The MTA must always guarantee the safety of its riders, but this has taken long enough and they need to keep to schedule.”

As reported by Curbed NY, the clock is ticking away against the deadline and the MTA has yet to announce an opening date for the new line. We know that there has been progress, train cars have been taken from the Q line and test runs have been made, but the time frame for the opening remains a mystery. At an MTA board meeting in late October, Kent Haggas, an independent engineer who is reviewing the line’s progress, said that the 86th and 72nd Street stations may not be ready to open by December. “Basically, the progress to date needs to be almost tripled on a weekly basis to give us confidence we’ll finish everything by the end of December. The program definitely needs to ramp up,” said Haggas. At that same meeting the MTA’s chairman, Thomas F. Prendergast agreed there were several problems but said, “There is still a ways to go, and we’re still hopeful at this time for Dec. 31.”

The new number 7 train line at Hudson yards which opened in September 2015, was riddled with problems from the very start. The $2 billion station had reported leaks and puddles, while escalators and bathrooms were also closed for servicing. Perhaps that experience is now prompting caution by the MTA in unveiling the Second Avenue subway line.The new number 7 train line at Hudson yards which opened in September 2015, was riddled with problems from the very start. The $2 billion station had reported leaks and puddles, while escalators and bathrooms were also closed for servicing. Perhaps that experience is now prompting caution by the MTA in unveiling the Second Avenue subway line.

Can’t we wait on the bathrooms? New Yorkers can handle it!

Second Avenue Subway Work Happening ‘Around the Clock’ to Make Deadline

The contractor finishing testing on the Second Avenue subway line is working double shifts, seven days a week, in an “unprecedented” effort to meet the MTA’s December deadline, MTA officials said Monday.

The contractor finishing testing on the Second Avenue subway line is working double shifts, seven days a week, in an “unprecedented” effort to meet the MTA’s December deadline, MTA officials said Monday.

In particular, the contractor is working two shifts, seven days a week to complete installation of escalators at 86th Street by Nov. 30. The original target date was June 21 of this year.

Testing on those escalators will be performed “around the clock” to meet the opening date, according to Parikh’s report.

“The testing effort in general is unprecedented,” Parikh said at the MTA’s monthly Capital Program Oversight Committee meeting Monday. “We have full support from both contractors at this stage and New York City Transit required to meet the aggressive testing that we are coming up [against] for the remaining weeks before we open up the stations.”

They are also scrambling to finish the fire alarm system, which Parikh said is “the most critical system” in terms of posing a threat to meeting the deadline.

Haggas, the independent engineer tapped by the MTA to oversee the Second Avenue Subway project, said that final tests at the 63rd Street and Lexington Avenue station “should be underway shortly.”

Communications and fire alarm testing will continue through the middle of December at the other stations, Haggas said, and crew training has already been completed.

“We feel the trackway, the power, the cars and the controls have been pretty well prove out,” Haggas said. “That’s a major accomplishment.”

Haggas also noted that the contractor at the 86th Street station shortened his schedule by five days in order to complete the final elevator and escalator testing and integration by Dec. 9, and hailed the shorter schedule as “an improvement.”

The rate of test completion has improved in general, Haggas said, as workers have “basically hit their marks over the past two weeks.”

“That rate needs to be, of course, maintained throughout the final four or five weeks remaining,” Haggas added. “The completion of these tests by the middle of December is going to require, as Anil said, an unprecedented concentration of contractor, MTA capital and New York City Transit resources to complete.”

Robert Moses: Biggest “Bad Guy” In Blocking The Second Avenue Subway

We have been following the century-old battle over the Second Avenue Subway for a loooong time. So why did it not get done sooner? Biggest obstacle was Robert Moses.

An in-depth look at this man can be found in a book called “The Power Broker” by Robert A. Caro. Robert Moses (sometimes referred to as “RM”) was born in 1888. His parents were well-to-do merchants. Although he was born in New Haven, his family was from New York City and moved back when he was a youngster. Moses graduated from Yale in 1909.

An example of his arrogance involved the swimming team. A consistent benefactor of this team was Ogden Mills Reid. As a matter of fact, he paid almost all of the expenses of this team as Yale was then concentrating its funding on such projects as the Yale Bowl. Moses had organized a “minor sports association” in which each minor sport at Yale would share equally in donations. Moses approached Reid and got a contribution but didn’t tell him it was for all minor sports and not just swimming. When challenged by the team captain for deliberately misleading Reid, Moses offered his resignation the first of many times in his life. This time it was accepted. Other times it was refused by many mayors and governors. The next time his resignation was accepted was by Nelson Rockefeller almost sixty years later!

It can be argued that Robert Moses shaped New York in its present form. He built every major highway except the East River Drive, all seven bridges completed since 1931, Shea Stadium, Lincoln Center and the now-empty New York Coliseum. In addition, he cleared the obstacles to acquiring the United Nations land and built huge numbers of public and private housing units (Coop City for example). But he didn’t do much for mass transit and consistantly blocked the Second Avenue Subway.

Between 1924 and 1968 he held immense power. The base for this power was a public corporation named the Triborough Bridge and Tunnel Authority. In addition, he held several other titles such as New York Power Authority Chairman; New York State Parks Commission Chairman; New York City Construction Coordinator; New York City Planning Commission Chairman.

He controlled his empire from an unobtrusive building on Randall’s Island below the Triborough toll plaza. As a matter of fact, his authority administered all of Randall’s Island. The TBTA had its own flag; fleet of cars, trucks and boats; and private army of “Bridge and Tunnel Officers”. It had its own source of revenue in the coins dropped into toll booths.

Moses had a secret veto on all public works projects in New York City and had more power than the mayor. He kept secret files which he used to discredit his opponents.

He was the long-time New York City Parks Commissioner. When he took the job there were 119 playgrounds in the city. When he left there were 777. Outside of the city, he built power dams at Massena and Niagara Falls as well as many parks and parkways on Long Island. Since he built both Jones Beach and all roads leading to it, that explains why there is no mass transit to it.

In the 1930’s the Regional Plan Association proposed improved mass transit. Robert Moses didn’t listen to them; instead he built 100 miles of new parkways which filled up as soon as they were opened. RM was responsible for the West Side Improvements and wanted “the great highway that went uptown along the water”. He completed a long-stalled 5-mile elevated expressway from the southern tip of Manhattan to 72nd Street. He also built 6 1/2 miles north to the tip of the island. He then built a park on the river and the Henry Hudson Bridge.

The West Side project involved moving the New York Central Railroad. Details of this were set up in a 1927 agreement between the railroad and the city. The 30th Street and 72nd Street yards were built to replace track further downtown. Before 1929, the city had spent $25 million and the railroad $84 million. The Depression had halted all work but RM found money for the railroad by tapping the state grade crossing elimination fund.

The Bronx-Whitestone Bridge which was built in 1936 made no provision for mass transit. Earlier bridges in New York (not built by Moses) had subway lines as well as roads. Some of these are the Brooklyn, Queensboro, Manhattan and Williamsburg. Many of the parkways he built were designed with bridges too low to accommodate buses. This was very intentional as Moses wanted to make them for cars-only and to exclude trucks.

Between 1930 and 1950, rail commuters declined while highway commuters into New York increased. Every trainload of commuters shifting to automobiles required parking space about equal to the effective parking capacity of one side of Fifth Avenue from Washington Square to Sixty-eighth Street (3 miles).

The Van Wyck Expressway was built where 13 tracks of the Long Island Railroad cross Atlantic Avenue in Jamaica. While construction was underway, 1100 daily train movements (one of the busiest in the world) were maintained. One can’t help but wonder why a rail line from this point couldn’t have easily followed the parkway to Kennedy Airport. Cost to construct when the road was being built would have been reasonable – today it would be prohibitive.

There was an attempt in 1955 to use Triborough and Port Authority funds to modernize the Long Island Railroad, build a subway loop to New Jersey, build a new Queens subway and build the famous but still-born 2nd Avenue Subway. At central locations in Queens and Nassau Counties, multilevel parking garages could have been built atop commuter rail stops. There could have been a new East Side Long Island RR terminal and even a new rapid transit line along the median strip of the Long Island Expressway. The New Jersey tunnel loop would have not only given access to Manhattan where commuters really wanted to go from the Battery to Fifty-ninth Street. It would have prevented the current mess on New Jersey highways, trans-Hudson vehicular tunnels, the West Side Highway and Manhattan streets. The Nostrand Avenue Subway in Brooklyn could have been extended and the even-today bottleneck in train service between Brooklyn and Manhattan at DeKalb Avenue eliminated.

RM’s proposed highways were designed to help automobile-owning families. In 1945 two out of three residents of the city did not own automobiles. Subway fare increases hurt these people. While highways were being extended into areas of the city where they might or might not be needed, subways were not being extended to where they were vitally needed. His monopolization of public funds for highways made subway construction impossible. Even for car-owning families, no subway meant the hardship of having to drive into Manhattan – and park – and pay bridge tolls. It is also said that Moses’ transportation policies helped the poor stay trapped in their slums (“ghettoization”).

In the 1950’s, millions were spent on highways in New York City but only a fraction of that on mass transit. In 1974, New Yorkers were still riding on tracks laid between 1904 and 1933 – before Moses had come to power. Not another mile was built under Moses. Since shortly after World War I, the city had been promising to build a Second Avenue Subway to serve the East Side. Plans have sat in city engineer’s desks since 1929. The city repeated its promise when the Second Avenue El was torn down and again in 1955 when the Third Avenue El went. A Second Avenue Subway coupled to a dedicated East River tunnel could have been extended to Queens to provide subway lines to residents who were miles from the nearest station. The result was, and is, an overcrowded Lexington Avenue IRT line. Subway cars were not replaced (at one point, much of the fleet was a half century old) and a policy of “deferred maintenance” began to take its toll. Fortunately, the subway system had been well engineered and previously well maintained – but eventually it deteriorated.

The last great project Robert Moses was involved in was the 1964 World’s Fair. It was a financial disaster and, again, no gains for mass transit. In the meantime, the Long Island Expressway was built without provision for rapid transit. As each section opened, it was jammed to capacity (“The world’s largest parking lot”). For an extra 4 percent of the cost, it would have been possible to acquire the land to build a rail line.

New York City Mayor Lindsey and many others tried to throttle Moses, but only Nelson Rockefeller was successful. “Rocky” was one of the most dynamic and forceful governors New York ever had. Moses had always used financial protection of creditors as a defense against any takeover of “his” Authority. But his principal bondholder trustee was the Chase Manhattan Bank. Chase Manhattan was the only major bank still controlled by one family – the Governor’s! Rockefeller brought all the region’s transportation elements together under William Ronan and the Metropolitan Transportation Authority.

When “RM” came to power, New York City’s mass transit system was the best in the world. When he left, it was the worst.