Women in WWII

Yes, they deserve a looooong blog. Remember how woman won the sex barrier at local trolley/bus company anf KEPT their jobs. Better than working in “the mills”

Pacific Paratrooper

untitled womenIn honor of Women’s History Month this week’s posts will be a dedication to them…..

As WWII unfolded around the globe, women were also affected. Some found themselves pressed into jobs and duties they would never have previously considered. Hitler derided Americans as degenerate for putting the women to work, but nearly 350,000 American females alone served in uniform voluntarily. A transformation of half the population, never seen before, that began evolving in the early ‘40’s and continues today.

For the WASPs, 1,830 female pilots volunteered for Avenger Field outside Sweetwater, Texas alone and it was the only co-ed air base in the U.S. These women would ferry aircraft coming off the assembly lines from the factories to the base. They acted as test pilots; assessing the performance of the planes. The WASPs were flight instructors and would shuttle officers around to the posts where they were needed. For artillery…

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How Police Use a Dangerous Anti-Terrorism Tactic to End Pursuits

How Police Use a Dangerous Anti-Terrorism Tactic to End Pursuits


hanquarius Calhoun liked to run from cops. In 2010, he fled from police in Georgia twice and was arrested for it each time. The next year he fled and was arrested again. On May 3, 2013, he did it again. Then, 11 days later, he ran from the cops for the very last time.

On that Tuesday afternoon, Calhoun, who was born and raised in Henry County, Georgia, was caught speeding on I-85, heading north, when a Banks County sheriff’s deputy put on his lights to pull the gray Toyota Corolla over for a traffic stop. Calhoun decided to hit the gas instead of the brakes and make a run for it, as he had so many times in the past. Police officers from Banks County, Franklin County, and eventually the Georgia State Patrol chased him at speeds exceeding 120 mph, with Calhoun and his pursuers weaving around cars on the highway.

At 2:03 p.m., after 14 minutes and 21 miles of pursuit, Trooper Donnie O’Neal Saddler decided that Calhoun had to be stopped to protect the lives of innocent people on the highway. Saddler pulled his car alongside Calhoun’s and performed, at 111 mph, what is called a Precision Immobilization Technique, or PIT maneuver, making contact with the back of Calhoun’s car and causing it to spin clockwise and careen off the side of the highway across the rumble strips and into a small embankment, eventually striking a tree. Calhoun was completely ejected from the car and sustained major injuries, but somehow survived.

If Calhoun had been alone in the car, he might have received little or no prison time, as he had with all his previous arrests for minor crimes. He was driving with a suspended license — and some counterfeit currency was later found in the wreckage — but his most serious offense was running from the police. That Tuesday, however, he had two friends as passengers, 20-year-old Relpheal Morton and 19-year-old Marion Shore. In court, Trooper Saddler described seeing Morton at the scene. “He was still in the back seat,” Saddler said. “He was kind of just looking around … I will never forget it. He just kept looking around.”

Morton, whom I was not able to interview for this article, must have been stunned to be alive and relatively unharmed. The crash was so violent that the car’s roof was ripped completely off. The car looked flattened, like a tank had ridden over it. In one of the police dashcam videos that shows the crash, pieces of the car fly dozens of feet in the air toward the camera. According to a report by the Georgia State Patrol’s Specialized Collision Reconstruction Team, “The damage to the Toyota Corolla was too extensive to describe all the damage.” It seems almost impossible that two people survived.

Marion Shore was not so lucky. She was sitting in the passenger seat, wearing her seatbelt, but the force of the crash was so strong that she was partially ejected from the car while it was flipping and rolling. Shore, the mother of a 3-year-old boy, was trapped halfway inside the car, in an in-between place where death was certain. The car rolled over her several times. The chief medical examiner for the state of Georgia examined Shore’s body and said in court that, as the car was rolling, the forces propelling it “literally bent her body almost in half.”

THE PIT MANEUVER is a modified version of an anti-terrorist driving tactic that has been taught for four decades by BSR, a private training facility in West Virginia that works with U.S. military and law enforcement personnel. According to BSR, the technique was originally developed by Germany’s federal police to give security details the ability to take out a car that was threatening a convoy. In 1985, the maneuver was developed by the Fairfax County, Virginia, police department in order to end pursuits with little danger to police or the general public.

This is how it is supposed to work: An officer pulls alongside a fleeing vehicle so that the officer’s front bumper is just ahead of the other vehicle’s back bumper. The officer matches the fleeing driver’s speed, gently touches — not rams — the other vehicle, and then makes a quick quarter turn of the wheel toward it. The other car then spins out safely to a stop. According to California Highway Patrol instructions, “The key to proper execution of the PIT is finesse. Ideally, the initial contact with the subject vehicle should be so gentle the operator of the subject vehicle is not aware that contact has been made.” It’s a difficult maneuver to learn, even for seasoned police officers, because the training goes up against a lifetime of being told not to touch things with your moving vehicle, especially other cars. Officers are generally trained on closed roadways at speeds between 25 and 40 mph. The PIT is now used by agencies throughout the U.S., and if used correctly at slow speeds and in the right circumstances — little traffic, no bystanders, open road — it can be an effective and predictable method to cut short pursuits and save lives. At high speeds, it becomes a deadly force technique, a way to stop a driver at all costs. As one expert put it, the PIT would only be predictable at high speeds if performed “on an airport runway.”

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International Trade and Commerce at PortMiami is Only Getting Stronger

MIAMI, March 14, 2016 /PRNewswire/ — Containerized cargo volumes continue to grow at PortMiami. The Port posted an eight percent increase for the first four months of fiscal year 2015-2016 compared to last year, and in January alone cargo moves increased approximately 20 percent.

PortMiami is now servicing bigger ships. In the past six months the Port has seen a trend in container vessels with more than 40 ft. drafts berth at the Port, including vessels that will soon be able to transit the new Panama Canal once the project is completed later this year.

PortMiami officials attribute the new trends and continued volume growth to more than $1 billion of capital infrastructure projects recently completed. Miami now offers shippers and ocean carriers the deepest channel in the Southeast U.S. at -50/-52 ft. Its fast-access tunnel connecting the Port directly to the U.S. Interstate Highway System, as well as the Florida East Coast Railway (FECR) on-dock intermodal rail service that allows a seamless transfer of goods from ship to rail, provide rapid turnaround time for the movement of both import and export goods while delivering a seamless network reaching 70 percent of the U.S. population within four days.

“Together the Port and FECR move a variety of goods ranging from grain and food products to electronics, furniture and waste products. Accompanying the Port’s growth, FECR saw a substantial increase from the previous year in intermodal volume at the on-dock rail facility,” said Jim Hertwig, Florida East Coast Railway President & CEO. “Today we are positioned to support vessels capable of hauling more than 10,000 TEU’s, and FECR will continue to promote multi-modal shipping and support global trade into and out of South Florida, alongside our partners at PortMiami.”

“The world is taking notice of PortMiami’s continued growth and performance,” said Miami-Dade County Mayor Carlos A. Gimenez. “I’m proud that PortMiami was recently ranked among the fastest-growing seaports in the nation, and we’re just getting started!”

“PortMiami’s top trading regions are well diversified,” said Port Director and CEO Juan M. Kuryla. “We are confident that international trade and commerce at PortMiami will only get stronger as we continue to work on expanding our services into emerging markets such as Africa, Asia, India and others. We are continually striving to create new programs, incentives and infrastructure accommodations for our customers. Additionally, the completion of the Panama Canal expansion will be a game changer for Miami, as there is no other port on the east coast south of Virginia capable of handling neo-Panamax vessels.”

About Florida East Coast Railway
The Florida East Coast Railway (FECR) is a 351-mile freight rail system located along the east coast of Florida. It is the exclusive rail provider for PortMiami, Port Everglades, and Port of Palm Beach. FECR connects to the national railway system in Jacksonville, Fla., to move cargo originating or terminating there. Based in Jacksonville, Fla., FECR provides end-to-end intermodal and carload solutions to customers who demand cost-effective and premium quality. For more information, visit www.fecrwy.com

About PortMiami
PortMiami is among America’s busiest ports and recognized as a global gateway. PortMiami contributes more than $27 billion annually to Miami-Dade County and generates 207,000 direct, indirect, and induced jobs. For more information please visit www.portmiami.biz.

Important Dates in New York State Railroad History

Picture above is a drawing of one of my favorites: A “P Motor”
Art work by Stacy Kinlock Sewell

Wanted to give you a feel for all the information we have. We await your comments.

Not only New York Central, but D&H, O&W, Erie, Lackawanna

1794 Cornelius Vanderbilt, creator of the New York Central & Hudson River Railroad, is born.
1825 George Featherstonhaugh (pronounced fen-shaw), of Duanesburgh NY, runs a newspaper notice announcing the formation of the Mohawk & Hudson Rail Road Company.
1826 The Mohawk & Hudson Railroad is chartered in New York State. Most historians consider this the first event leading to the New York Central System.
1831 The New York & Harlem Railroad is incorporated to build from 23rd Street, New York City to the Harlem River. It is the first predecessor of the New York Central in New York City.
1831 The Boston & Worcester Railroad Corporation incorporates in Massachusetts. It is the oldest element of the New York Central system in New England.
1832 the Rensselaer & Saratoga Railroad was created.
1832 the Saratoga & Fort Edward Railroad was created to extend the railroad at Saratoga Springs northwards.
1832 the Watertown & Rome Railroad was created to build a link between Rome and the lower valley of the Black River and end at a point where Lake Ontario met the St. Lawrence River.
1833 the Saratoga & Schuylerville Railroad was created.
1833 the Saratoga & Schenectady Railroad opened throughout after the bridge at Ballston Spa was completed.
1833 A meeting of cab owners and drivers is held at Tammany Hall to protest the occupation of streets by the New York & Harlem Railroad. At the end of the meeting the crowd spills out of the hall and tears up a piece of track.
1834 The first section of the Boston & Worcester Railroad (later B&A, NYC) opens between Boston and West Newton MA. It is the first rail passenger service and first run of a steam locomotive in New England.
1836 the Lewiston Railroad was created.
1839 the Oswego & Syracuse Railroad was created.
1845 the Lake Champlain & Ogdensburg Railroad was dissolved and replaced with the Northern Railroad that was created on this day.
1845 The Troy & Greenbush Railroad opens between its namesake New York towns. It is the last link in an all-rail line between Boston and Buffalo.
1846 The Hudson River Railroad is incorporated with the goal of building a line from New York City to Albany.
1847 The Mohawk & Hudson changes its name to Albany & Schenectady Railroad (later NYC).
1849 the Troy & Rutland Railroad was created.
1850 the Northern Railroad opened from Ellenburgh Depot to Chateaugay.
1850 Irate farmers set fire to the Michigan Central Railroad freight house in Detroit as a protest over what they believed were unfair company policies that hurt farmers. Top on their list was MC’s refusal to reimburse them full market value when their animals were killed while on the tracks, as the earlier, state-owned Central Railroad of Michigan had done. The blaze, part of a larger campaign of violence and sabotage that pitted the planters and cattlemen against the encroaching railroads, destroys $100,000 worth of flour, corn and wheat stores in the depot.
1851 the Watertown & Rome Railroad opened from Mannsville to Washingtonville.
1851 The Albany Northern Railroad was created to build from Albany to Eagle Bridge.
1851 the Watertown & Rome Railroad opened from Richland to Mannsville.
1851 the Plattsburgh & Montreal Railroad was created.
1851 the Watertown & Rome Railroad opened from Washingtonville to Pierrepont Manor.
1851 the Troy & Bennington Railroad was created by the Troy & Boston Railroad.
1851 the Watertown & Rome Railroad opened from Pierrepont Manor to Adams.
1851 The first train on the southern shore of Lake Erie runs during opening ceremonies of the Cleveland, Painesville & Ashtabula Rail Road. (later CTRR. LSRR, LS&MS, NYC, PC, CR, NS)
1852 the Watertown & Rome Railroad opened from Chaumont to Cape Vincent.
1852 The Michigan Southern Railroad (later MS&NI, LS&MS, NYC, PC, CR, NS) reaches Chicago. The rush to beat the Michigan Central into Chicago has left a break in Michigan Southern’s line between Laporte and Michigan City. Michigan Southern travelers are forced to take a stagecoach between those two cities.
1852 the New York & Bennington Railroad was absorbed by the Lebanon Springs Railroad.
1852 the Rochester & Lake Ontario Railroad was created.
1852 the Troy & Rutland Railroad opened from Salem to Eagle Bridge and was leased by the Rutland & Washington Railroad.
1852 the Vermont Central Railroad cancelled the lease it had on the Vermont & Canada Railroad.
1853 the Ogdensburg, Clayton & Rome Railroad was created by the Watertown & Rome Railroad to link it up to Boonville.
1853 The Mohawk Valley Railroad merges with 9 other railroads to create the New York Central. Erastus Corning has managed the merger.
1853 The ten railroads linking Albany and Buffalo file papers with the Secretary of State of New York forming the New York Central. It becomes the largest railroad in the U.S. in terms of mileage, capitalization and net worth.
1855 the Rensselaer & Saratoga Railroad had the Saratoga & Washington Railroad renamed to the Saratoga & Whitehall Railroad.
1855 The first train crosses the suspension bridge over Niagara Falls. Before this time, goods and passengers were ferried across the river. The bridge does not end the transfer, as the change in track gauge between lines in New York and Ontario remains, although the bridge itself has three gauges (56.5″, 66″ and 72″). The Bridge will allow the Michigan Central via the Great Western to reach markets in the east and will be a major selling point for the MC.
1857 work on the Ogdensburg, Clayton & Rome Railroad ended and the company was dissolved.
1857 Cornelius Vanderbilt, already a multi-millionaire steamboat operator, becomes a director of the New York & Harlem Railroad.
1857 The New York Central and the Hudson River Railroads begin operating a “Lightning Train” between New York City and Buffalo in 15 hours, or an average of 40 MPH. (and that was when the only bridge was the Green Island Bridge + a pedestrian bridge)
1857 the Potsdam & Watertown Railroad opened from DeKalb to Potsdam and then took over the Potsdam Railroad.
1858 The New York Central provides a sleeping car on overnight trains between Albany and Buffalo NY.
1860 the Albany & Vermont Railroad was purchased jointly by the Rensselaer & Saratoga Railroad and the Troy & Boston Railroad. Rensselaer & Saratoga Railroad leased from Albany to Waterford Junction and the rest was abandoned.
1860 the Sackets Harbor & Ellisburgh Railroad was renamed to the Sackets Harbor, Rome & New York Railroad.
1860 the Saratoga & Schenectady Railroad was leased to the Rensselaer & Saratoga Railroad.
1860 The New York & Harlem Railroad begins through ticketing with the New York Central to Albany. The trip takes 4 hours, 18 minutes.
1861 the Black River & Utica Railroad was renamed to the Utica & Black River Railroad.
1863 the Oswego & Rome Railroad was created to link the Rome Watertown & Ogdensburg Railroad to Oswego.
1863 the Montreal Champlain Railroad was leased by the Grand Trunk Railway.
1864 the Ogdensburg & Lake Champlain Railroad was created for the purpose of taking over the Ogdensburg Railroad.
1864 Chauncey Depew, an executive with the New York Central Railroad and a prominent Republican, says, “Governor Horatio Seymour of Utica is an elegant and an accomplished gentleman with a high-bred manner which never bends.” Read more: http://www.uticaod.com/article/20140802/News/140809890#ixzz39byM6o9N
1865 the Rutland & Washington Railroad was leased by the Rensselaer & Saratoga Railroad.
1865 the Troy & Rutland Railroad merged with the Rutland & Washington Railroad to become the Troy, Salem & Rutland Railroad.
1865 the Troy & Rutland Railroad was purchased by the Rutland & Washington Railroad.
1865, the Troy, Salem & Rutland Railroad merged into the Rensselaer & Saratoga Railroad.
1866 The railroad bridge over the Hudson between Albany and Greenbush opens, linking the New York Central and the Hudson River Railroads. NYC will begin running through trains between New York and Buffalo, but in summer will still deliver most freight to the river steamers.     1866 The Hudson River Railroad and the New York & Harlem Railroad begin operating into Albany.
1866 The Blue Line, a second cooperative fast freight line, is organized at Albany. (The Red Line had been organized in the spring, running over the NYC and Wabash) The line will operate over the New York Central, the Great Western of Canada and the Michigan Central to Chicago as soon as Great Western lays a third rail for standard-gauge cars. It will run west of Chicago on the Illinois Central, Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, Chicago & North Western and the Chicago & Alton. The line will own 7,000 cars.
1866 The Canada Southern Railway is incorporated in Canada from the Erie & Niagara Extension Railway.
1867 the Fonda, Johnstown & Gloversville Railroad was created.
1868  the Whitehall & Plattsburgh Railroad opened from Plattsburgh to Rogers.
1869 The New York Central Railroad (1853) and the Hudson River Railroad are consolidated to form the New York Central & Hudson River Railroad Company (NYC&HR) under the control of Cornelius Vanderbilt. The merger plan was kept secret from regular stockholders until the vote was taken.
1869 the Oswego & Syracuse Railroad was leased by the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad.
1869 the Whitehall & Plattsburgh Railroad was leased by the Montreal & Plattsburgh Railroad.
1869 the Glens Falls Railroad was purchased by the Rensselaer & Saratoga Railroad.
1869 the Glens Falls Railroad opened from Fort Edward to Glens Falls.
1869 The “Black Friday” panic in New York is touched off by the collapse of Jay Gould and Jim Fisk’s attempt to corner the gold market. Cornelius Vanderbilt will begin buying a major interest in the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Railroad in the wake of the panic.
1869 The Lake Shore & Michigan Southern is formed by the combination of the Michigan Southern & Northern Indiana Railroad and the Lake Shore Railway.
1870 the Black River & Morristown Railroad was created by the Utica & Black River Railroad to build from Philadelphia to Morristown.
1870 the New York State part of the Lebanon Springs Railroad merged into the Harlem Extension Railroad.
1870 the Grand Trunk Railway created the Montreal & Champlain Junction Railway to connect the two separate lines that were the former Montreal & Champlain Railroad. This new company would eventually be the Massena line.
1870  the Whitehall Plattsburgh Railroad’s southern line from Addison Junction to Port Henry was leased by the Rutland Railroad.
1870 The first segment of the Kalamazoo & South Haven (later MC, NYC, PC, CR) is completed from Kalamazoo to Kendall MI.
1871 the New York & Oswego Midland Railroad opened from Oswego to Oneida and continued southwards through Middletown to Unionville.
1871 The first train runs from Kalamazoo to South Haven on the Kalamazoo & South Haven Railroad.
1872 The New York Central & Hudson River, New York & Harlem and New Haven railroads sign an agreement for the joint use of the first Grand Central Station.
1872 the Oswego Railroad Bridge Company was created to build a tunnel and bridge in Oswego.
1872 the Montreal & Champlain Railroad was purchased by Grand Trunk Railway and merged inot them to become the Hemmingford Division (line running north of Mooers Junction) and the St-Jean Division (line running north of Rouses Point).
1873 The Canada Southern Railway opens for through traffic.
1874 the Syracuse North Western Railroad was created.
1875 the New York & Canada Railroad opened a branch to Lake George from Delano to Baldwin.
1875 the Syracuse North Western Railroad merged into the Syracuse, Phoenix & Oswego Railroad.
1875 The New York Central & Hudson River Railroad opens the entire Fourth Avenue Improvement in New York City with two of the eventual four tracks in service. The project eliminates grade crossings between Grand Central Station and Harlem River.
1875 Wagner sleeping cars replace Pullmans on the Michigan Central Railroad. Wagner inaugurates through cars between Boston and Chicago via both the MC and the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern routes. Because of this, the Erie drops its routing over the MC as does the Toledo, Wabash & Western.
1877 Grand Trunk Railway created the Beauharnois Junction Railway to build from the Montreal & Champlain Junction Railway through Beauharnois to Valleyfield.
1877 the Schuylerville & Upper Hudson Railroad was renamed to the Mechanicsville & Fort Edward Railroad and opened to those points.
1877 Commodore Vanderbilt dies at his home at the age of 82. He leaves the bulk of his estate and control of the Vanderbilt Lines to his son, William Henry.
1877 The U.S. Supreme Court upholds the regulation of railroads.
1878 the Plattsburgh & Dannemora Railroad was created.
1878 A refrigerated carload of beef arrives in Philadelphia 64 hours after leaving Chicago. It has been routed on the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern, New York Central & Hudson River, Lehigh Valley and Reading Railroads.
1878 William H. Vanderbilt gains control of the Michigan Central.
1878 A two-day conference of the Vanderbilt lines concludes at Saratoga NY. The lines agree to end competition between the Michigan Central and the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern.
1878 The New York Central & Hudson River Railroad begins running RPO’s to Chicago, replacing all-mail trains.
1879 the Chateaugay Railroad was created.
1879 the Plattsburgh & Dannemora Railroad was leased by the Chateaugay Railroad.
1880 the Chateaugay Railroad opened from Williams Opening to Lyon Mountain.
1880 the oldest chartered company of the adirondack Division was created, the Herkimer Newport & Poland Narrow Gauge Railway, to build from Herkimer to Poland.
1881 the Chateaugay Railroad was purchased by the Chateaugay Ore & Iron Company.
1881 Niagara Falls Branch Railroad was leased by the Rome, Watertown Ogdensburg Railroad.
1882 the Herkimer Newport & Poland Narrow Gauge Railway opened from Newport to Poland.
1882 the Glens Falls Railroad opened from Glens Falls to Lake George and was leased by The Presidents, Managers & Company of the Delaware & Hudson Canal Company.
1882 the Hoosac Tunnel & Saratoga Railway was leased by the Boston, Hoosac Tunnel & Western Railway
1883 the Black River & St. Lawrence Railway was renamed to the Carthage & Adirondack Railway.
1883 the Court of Vermont took the Vermont & Canada Railroad, along with its leased and owned properties, which included the Central Vermont Railroad, and merged them into the Consolidated Railroad Company of Vermont. This company was then leased by the original owners, calling themselves the Central Vermont Railroad.
1883 the Ontario Pacific Railway received an expansion in its proposed line from French River to Sault Ste. Marie and branch lines to Smiths Falls, Almonte and Pembroke.
1883 The first trains run on New York Central’s West Shore line, on the west side of the Hudson
1883 The railroads in the United States and Canada agree to a system of standard time, replacing the confusing and unsafe practice of each locality setting its own “sun” time. The system will take effect the following spring. However, it will not be until 1918 that Standard, or “Railroad” time is made the official U.S. system.
1884 the Sodus Bay & Southern Railway went under the control of the Northern Central Railway.
1886 the Canastota Northern Railroad was created.
1886 the Ogdensburg & Morristown Railroad and the Clayton & Theresa Railroad merged into the Utica & Black River Railroad.
1886 the Utica & Black River railroad was purchased by the Rome Watertown & Ogdensburg Railroad.
1886 the Fulton & Oswego Railroad merged into the Syracuse, Phoenix & Oswego Railway
1886 the Rome Watertown & Ogdensburg Terminal Railroad was created.
1887 the Massena Springs & Fort Covington Railroad merged into the United States & Canada Railroad.
1887 the Troy, Saratoga & Northern Railroad merged into the Fitchburg Railroad.
1888 the Canada Atlantic Railway helped to create the St. Lawrence & Adirondack Railway to build a line from Valleyfield to Malone.
1888 the Canadian Pacific Railway created the South Western Railway to build from Dundee to Kahnawake.
1889 the Keeseville, Ausable Chasm & Lake Champlain Railroad was created.
1889 the Saratoga & St. Lawrence Railroad was leased by the Ogdensburg & Lake Champlain Railroad, whom was leased by the Central Vermont Railroad
1889 the Adirondack Railway was purchased by The Presidents, Managers & Company of the Delaware & Hudson Canal Company.
1889 The Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis Railroad (The Big Four) is formed from the merger of the Cleveland, Columbus, Cincinnati & Indianapolis Railway, the Cincinnati, Indianapolis, St. Louis & Chicago Railway and the Indianapolis & St. Louis Railway.
1890 the Northern Adirondack Extension Railroad merged into the Northern Adirondack Railroad.
1890 the Rome, Watertown & Ogdensburg Terminal Railroad merged into the Rome, Watertown & Ogdensburg Railroad.
1890 the Keeseville, Ausable Chasm & Lake Champlain Railroad opened from Port Kent to Keeseville.
1890 the Saranac & Lake Placid Railroad was created to link Saranac Lake to Lake Placid.
1890 the Northern Adirondack Railroad ran their first train into Tupper Lake.
1891 the Little Falls & Dolgeville Railroad was created.
1891 the New York Central & Hudson River Railroad leased the Rome Watertown & Ogdensburg Railroad, whom had a lease on the Utica & Black River Railroad.
1891 the Adirondack Extension Railroad was created to build from mile 60 (just north of North Creek) to Malone. This line never got that far and the line didnt open to Sanford Lake, even though the grading was there. In the future a portion of this route be be opened by the Federal Government to a mining operation with rail operations by the Delaware & Hudson Railroad.
1891 the Herkimer Newport & Poland Narrow Gauge Railway merged into the Mohawk Valley & Northern Railway.
1892 the Gouverneur & Oswegatchie Railroad was created.
1892 the Herkimer Newport & Poland Railway merged with the Herkimer Newport & Poland Extension Railway and the St. Lawrence & Adirondack Railroad to become the Mohawk & Malone Railway.
1892 the Mohawk & Malone Railway opened from Poland to Thendara, with a branch from Prospect Junction to Hinckley.
1892 the Gouverneur & Oswegatchie Railroad was leased by the New York Central & Hudson River Railroad.
1893 the Mohawk & Malone Railway was leased by the New York Central & Hudson River Railroad. They also leased the Carthage & Adirondack Railway.
1893 all Mohawk & Malone Railway trains that were through services was moved from Herkimer to Utica.
1893 the New York Rutland & Montreal Railroad was renamed to the Lebanon Springs Railroad.
1893 Standards are set for Railroad Timepieces, a vital necessity when most trains move by timetable and train order.
1895 the Schenectady Railway was created. It would then open from Schenectady to Saratoga Springs.
1895 the Gloversville & Broadalbin Railroad was created.
1895 the Racquette River railroad was created to build an extension of the Northern Adirondack Railroad from Tupper Lake to Axton landing, where a connection to the Adirondack Extension Railroad was to be made.
1895 the St. Lawrence & Adirondack Railway began to use the Canadian Pacific Railway Montreal Windsor Station.
1895 the Northern Adirondack Railroad was renamed to the Northern New York Railroad.
1895 the Northern Adirondack Railroad was sold.
1896 the Central Vermont Railroad released the Ogdensburg & Lake Champlain Railroad from the lease they had. Also released was the Saratoga & St. Lawrence Railroad.
1896 the Northern New York railroad began to operate the Saratoga & St. Lawrence Railroad to see if it would be an ideal extension into Canada.
1896 the Mount McGregor Railroad was renamed to the Saratoga & Mount McGregor Railway.
1896 the South Western Railway merged into the St. Lawrence & Adirondack Railway.
1897 the Ontario Pacific Railway was renamed to The Ottawa & New York Railway and was to build from Cornwall to Ottawa.
1897 the Saratoga & Mount McGregor Railway was renamed to the Saratoga Northern Railroad and was abandoned from Mt. McGregor to just south of Wilton.
1897 Railroad reformer Robert R. Young is born. Chairman of the Board of Chesapeake & Ohio, Erie, Missouri Pacific, Nickel Plate, Pere Marquette, Wheeling & Lake Erie and finally New York Central, he is perhaps best known for his advertising campaign: “A hog can cross the country without changing trains but you can’t”.
1898 the Ogdensburg & Lake Champlain Railroad went to a new owner and the St. Lawrence & Adirondack Railway went under New York Central & Hudson River railroad operations.
1899 the Ottawa & New York Railway (Canadian piece of NY Central’s Ottawa Division) began to use Central Station in Ottawa for its passenger trains, while Mixed ones continued to use the CPR station.
1899 the New York & Ottawa Bridge Company was created to lease the two bridges at Cornwall from the Ottawa & New York ailway and Cornwall Bridge Company.
1899 the Warren County Railroad was created.
1899 the Rutland-Canadian Railroad was leased by the Rutland Railroad.
1900, the New York & Ottawa Railroad was put into receivership.
1900 the Rutland & Noyan Railway purchased 50% ownership of the Lake Champlain bridge that linked Alburgh to Rouses Point. They did this in trust for the Rutland-Canadian Railroad.
1900 The New York Central & Hudson River Railroad leases the Boston & Albany for 99 years.
1900 the Fitchburg Railroad was leased by the Boston & Maine Railroad.
1900 the Racquette Lake Railway opened to the public.
1900 The Monongahela Railroad is incorporated, owned 50/50 by the Pennsylvania and the Pittsburgh & Lake Erie.
1900 The Boston & Albany electrifies its Riverside to Newton Lower Falls shuttle.
1901 the Lebanon Springs Railroad Company merged into the Rutland Railroad.
1901 the Norwood & Raymondville Railroad was created to move paper products to Norwood’s rail yard and interchange.
1901, the Chatham & Lebanon Valley Railroad was purchased by the Rutland Railroad.
1901 the Norwood & Raymondville Railroad opened from Norwood to Raymondville.
1902 The New York Central & Hudson River Railroad’s “20th Century Limited”, “a train a century ahead of its time” according to contemporary accounts, begins operation. The average speed is 49 mph between New York and Chicago resulting in a 20-hour journey.
1903 the Cranberry Lake Railroad opened from Benson Mines to Wanakena. This was followed by the opening of a rail line by the Rich Lumber Company out of Wanakena.
1903 the Mountain Lake Electric Railroad was renamed to the Adirondack Lakes Traction Company.
1903 The Big Four Railroad (CCC&StL, later NYC) establishes the New York to St. Louis “Southwestern Limited”, scheduled at 30 hours for the trip.
1903 The New York Central and the Rock Island open LaSalle Street Station in Chicago. The new station gives the New York Central an edge over rival Pennsylvania, still operating in an antiquated Union Station lacking in passenger amenities.
1903 The New York Central & Hudson River Railroad votes to electrify between Croton-on-Hudson on the Hudson Division and North White Plains on the Harlem Division. The system used will be a 660-volt DC on an under-running third rail. Later this fall they will sign a contract with General Electric for the locomotives.
1903 The New York Central & Hudson River Railroad stages a competition for the design of the new Grand Central Terminal. Among the entries: a 60-story tower that would be the tallest building in New York.
1905 the New York & Ottawa Railway, along with the Ottawa & New York railway, were leased to the New York Central & Hudson River Railroad.
1906 the Plattsburgh Traction Company merged into the Delaware & Hudson Company and  the Hudson Valley Railway was acquired by the United Traction Company, a company owned by the Delaware & Hudson Company.
1906 the Carthage & Copenhagen Railroad was created.
1906 the Adirondack & St. Lawrence Railroad was created to take over the inactive rail line that was owned by the Stella Mine Company.
1906 Michigan Central buys the Chicago, Kalamazoo & Saginaw (later NYC, PC, CR; one branch GTW, CN) to thwart plans by the Pere Marquette to make it a link in a shorter Chicago-Detroit route. The MC has little interest in operating the line and the Sergeant family continues to run it much as they had before the purchase.
1907 The New York Central & Hudson River Railroad uses an electric locomotive for the first time to pull a passenger train out of Grand Central Terminal. Earlier electric passenger trains used MU equipment.
1907 The New York Central & Hudson River Railroad begins electrified service in MU cars between Grand Central and Wakefield. Some trains continue to White Plains behind steam.
1907, the Dolgeville & Salisbury Railway was created and was to be operated by the Little Falls & Dolgeville Railroad.
1907 The New York Central’s “Brewster Express” pulled by two S-1 electric locomotives derails at 205th Street in the Bronx, killing 21 and injuring 150. The wreck is blamed on the engines lateral force shearing spikes and causing the rails to spread. The electric locomotives will be rebuilt to 2-D-2 configuration and limited to 35 mph on curves.
1908 the New York & Canada Railroad merged into the Delware & Hudson Company.
1908 the Newton Falls & Northern Railroad was created and opened from Newton Falls to Newbridge.
1909 The Indianapolis Motor Speedway Company is formed. When the track is built this summer, the Peoria & Eastern will haul most of the materials. Later, when the original surface is found to be unsafe, the P&E will haul the bricks for “The Brickyard”.
1909 the Norwood & St. Lawrence Railroad opened from Raymondville to Waddington.
1909 a new swing bridge was put into operation for the Ottawa & New York Railway in Cornwall over the Cornwall Canal.
1910 The last train leaves the old Grand Central Terminal in New York City.
1910 First Michigan Central passenger trains through the Detroit-Windsor Tunnel.
1910 The Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Executive Committee authorizes the purchase of the Toledo & Ohio Central Railway from the Hocking Valley, as well as joint ownership with the Chesapeake & Ohio of the Kanawha & Michigan Railway. This will give the New York Central system access to coal fields in Southeastern Ohio and West Virginia for fuel. It will also provide the NYC System with a connection to the Virginian Railway.
1911 The Greenwich & Johnsonville Railroad sold their line from Greenwich to Salem to the Delaware & Hudson Company.
1912 Thawing roadbed wrecks the 20th Century Limited at Hyde Park NY. The New York Public Service Commission advises both the New York Central & Hudson River Railroad and the Pennsylvania Railroad to reduce speed on all of their New York-Chicago trains scheduled at 18 hours.
1913, the New York Central & Hudson River Railroad absorbed the New York & Ottawa Railway, the Mohawk & Malone Railway, the Carthage & Adirondack Railway and the Gouverneur & Oswegatchie Railroad.
1913 New York Central & Hudson River Railroad merged the following companies into itself: the Rome, Watertown & Ogdensburg Railroad, the Oswego & Rome Railroad, the Utica & Black River Railroad, the Carthage, Watertown & Sackets Harbor Railroad, the Little Falls & Dolgeville Railroad and the Niagara Falls Branch Railroad.
1913 The New York Central & Hudson River Railroad begins using Harmon as its steam-to-electric transfer point.
1913 The landmark Michigan Central depot in Detroit opens, rushed into service after fire damages the previous station. It will serve the city as a railroad depot until 1988, with the platforms in use until 1994. (note corrected date)
1913 Formal dedication ceremonies are held for the new Grand Central Terminal in New York City.
1914 The New York Central & Hudson River, the Lake Shore & Southern Michigan and several other subsidiaries consolidate with the New York Central. The Boston & Albany, Big Four and Michigan Central remain leased lines.
1914 the Northern Central Railway was leased by the Pennsylvania Railroad.
1914 The New York Central & Hudson River Railroad opens a new station at Rochester NY.
1915 The Interstate Commerce Commission orders the Pennsylvania, Northern Central, Lehigh Valley, New York Central, Rutland, Erie, Grand Trunk and Lackawanna railroads to divest themselves of their Great Lakes steamship lines by December 1. The Great Lakes car ferrries are not affected.
1915 The New York Central sells the Nickel Plate to the van Swearingen brothers. NYC fears that because much of NKP’s track parallels NYC’s, NYC could be liable for prosecution under anti-trust laws.
1915 The United States Attorney General rules that New York Central’s ownership of the Nickel Plate, Lake Shore & Michigan Southern and Michigan Central violates U.S. anti-trust laws and orders divesture.
1916 Due to several serious accidents caused by broken red lenses, the New York Central discontinues using white lights as an indication to proceed. The new color is green.
1917 The United States Railroad Administration takes over operation of all U.S. railroads at 12:00 noon.
1918 In Hammond IN, a Michigan Central engineer taking an empty troop train from Kalamazoo to Chicago falls asleep at the throttle. A Hagenbeck-Wallace Circus train in front of him was not yet clear of the main. He plows into it at 60 mph. Eighty-six people are killed and 127 injured.
1918 The USRA begins operating trains loaded with just food and supplies for the Allies from St. Louis and Chicago to Eastern ports. The trains are run on a 60-hour schedule, versus 8-14 days previously.
1918 President Wilson signs the Railroad Control Act, setting terms for operation of the railroads by the United States Railroad Administration (USRA). Railroads are to be paid rent for use of their lines and equipment.
1919 The New York Central opens the “Commodore Hotel” across the street from Grand Central Terminal with 2,000 rooms.
1920 the Grand Trunk railway became a Canadian Government owned property.
1920 The Pennsylvania Railroad begins passenger service from Toledo to Fort Street Union Depot in Detroit via trackage rights over the Ann Arbor, Pere Marquette and Wabash. The New York Central begins two daily round trips between Detroit and Pittsburgh to compete with the new PRR service.
1920 New York Central extends the New York-Buffalo “Mohawk” to Chicago via the Michigan Central.
1920 William K. Vanderbilt dies. His son, Harold S. Vanderbilt inherits half of his father’s fortune and takes the family seat on the New York Central Board.
1920 USRA control of railroads ends. 
1921 the Brooklyn Cooperage Company abandoned all their lines running out of Meno (Tupper Lake area).
1922 The plans for Cleveland Union Terminal are approved. The 52-storey Terminal Tower will be the tallest building west of New York.
1922 The New York Central Railroad gains control of the Chicago Stockyards District by the purchase of the Chicago River & Indiana Railroad and the Lease of the Chicago Junction Railway.
1922 The New York Central leases the Toledo & Ohio Central.
1923 Canadian National Railways created the holding company of Grand Trunk to operate CNR’s American lines that were once Grand Trunk Railway.
1924 The Roosevelt Hotel opens in downtown Manhattan, using air rights over Grand Central Terminal.
1924 The New York Central begins routing traffic to its new Selkirk Yard, located south of Albany.
1924 New York Central President Alfred H. Smith is killed while riding a horse in Central Park. His horse had reared to avoid hitting another rider.
1925 the Delaware & Hudson Company sold their Plattsburgh street line operation and it was then abandoned.
1925 A new bridge is opened over Niagara Falls, replacing the previous span built in 1855.
1926 The New York Central becomes the first railroad to use a radiotelephone in a train.
1927 the Adirondack St. Lawrence Railroad Company that ran off the NYC line to Massena was dissolved.
1927 The first New York Central “J-1” Hudson locomotive is outshopped by Alco.
1928 WGY-TV in Schenectady, New York, begins regular television programming.
1928 the Hudson Valley Railway abandoned from Schuylerville to Fort Edward and all lines within Glens Falls.
1928 The New York Central inaugurates Day Coach De Luxe No. 1 & 2 between New York and Buffalo on a 10 hour 20 minute schedule with 18 stops. It is the first luxury coach train.
1928 A record 854 long distance trains enter and leave Grand Central Terminal over 24 hours.
1929 The New York Central inaugurates its transcontinental rail-air service to Los Angeles. The route is formed in conjunction with Universal Air Lines (predecessor of United Air Lines) and Santa Fe via Southwestern Limited. Air travel is between Cleveland and Garden City, KS using Fokker Trimotors. Four passengers make the first westbound trip. Also on board: a silver container of Atlantic Ocean water from New York Mayor Jimmy Walker to be presented to the Mayor of Los Angeles.
1929 The New York Central holds dedication ceremonies for its new “Central Terminal” at Buffalo. The modified Art Deco style terminal includes seven platforms serving fourteen station tracks.
1930 The Fonda, Johnstown & Gloversville Railroad abandoned from Northville to Broadalbin Junction.
1930 the Greenwich & Johnsonville Railroad merged into the Delaware & Hudson Railroad.
1930 Formal dedication ceremonies are held for the opening of Cleveland Union Terminal.
1930 The New York Central system acquires the lease of both the Michigan Central and “Big Four” lines.
1930 New York Central leases the Michigan Central for 999 years.
1931 The New York Central pays its last dividend until after the Depression.
1932 Both the “Broadway Limited” and the “20th Century Limited” cut their New York to Chicago running time from 20 hours to 18 hours.
 Fares are raised $10 [$170 on 2013 dollars] to cover the added expense.
1932 The New York Central announces it will not pay a dividend in 1932. NYC will not pay a dividend again until 1942.
1932 “Twentieth Century”, a play by Ben Hecht and Charles MacArthur set on the famous New York Central passenger train opens on Broadway.
1934 “Twentieth Century”, a movie by Howard Hawkes based on the Broadway play opens nationwide. Considered the first of the “screwball” comedies (although similar comedies preceded it), the second half of the film is set on New York Central’s premier train.
1934 the New York Central Bridges at Cornwall were opened to automobiles to cross. This was done by planking the deck.
1934 the railway bridge in Cornwall was officially opened for automobiles and renamed to the Roosevelt International Bridge Company. It was now operated by the Cornwall-Northern New York International Bridge Company.
1935 The New York Central Lines (subsidiary companies) are re-named the New York Central System.
1937 the New York Central abandoned the Ottawa Division between Helena and Tupper Lake Junction. The remaining track in Tupper Lake was transferred to the Adirondack Division as a spur and the reach Helena, NYC had running rights over the Canadian National Railways Massena Subdivision from Massena.
1937 In a joint announcement, Pullman and the New York Central announce the order of new streamlined equipment to be NYC’s “Great Steel Fleet”. At the same time Pullman and the Pennsylvania Railroad announce new streamline cars to be PRR’s “Fleet of Modernism”.
1938 New train sets for the “20th Century Limited” are placed on display at Grand Central Terminal and LaSalle Street Station.
1938 the Fonda, Johnstown & Gloversville Railroad abandoned all their electric powered rail lines.
1939 New York Central Railroad’s $100,000 freight transfer station behind Union Station is one of the largest and busiest in the country. Ralph W. Tobin, the man in charge, says about 700 cars – from just about every state in the country and Canada – roll into the station every day, keeping nearly 400 men busy. Cars containing east and westbound shipments are broken up and freight for the same cities transferred to one or more cars.
1939 Charles Stewart Mott, a former Utican, is the largest individual owner of General Motors stock, the Wall Street Journal reports. He owns 523,087 shares, which is selling for $55 a share. That makes his holdings worth nearly $29 million. Mott got most of his shares by moving his wire wheel manufacturing business in Utica to Flint, Michigan, and later selling it to General Motors.
1940 The Lake Shore Limited wrecks at Little Falls NY. Thirty-nine people are killed. The Road Foreman of Engines, who was riding in the cab and survived the wreck, reported that the engineer, approaching a curve too fast, seemed disoriented. The engineer cut the throttle instead of applying brakes, causing a severe run-in and derailment.
1941 The New York Central puts its new, streamlined “James Whitcomb Riley” on display at Indianapolis Union Station. Henry Dreyfus has designed the new train.
1943 The New York Central pays a dividend for the first time since 1931.
1944 the Delaware & Hudson Railroad opened their North Creek Branch from North Creek to Tahawus. From Ordway Siding to Tahawus was owned by the National Lead Company.
1945 the Oswego & Syracuse Railroad merged into the Delaware Lackawanna & Western Railroad.
1946 Robert R. Young publishes his soon-to-be-famous “A hog can cross the country without changing trains, but YOU can’t” advertisement as part of his fight to buy the Pullman Company on the theme of a lack of transcontinental cars.
1948 The Lakefront Terminal & Dock Company (jointly owned and controlled by the Baltimore and Ohio and the New York Central railroads)  opens its new terminal at Toledo. The terminal will be used jointly by the New York Central and Chesapeake & Ohio. The terminal has two Hulett-type unloaders and three McMyler coal dumpers.
1948 Alco ends steam locomotive production. The final order, seven 4-8-4’s for the Pittsburgh & Lake Erie, had their tenders built by Lima as Alco’s former tender shop is full of diesels under construction.
1948 The New York Central issues a report that only 20 per cent of its long-distance passenger trains are diesel powered, but the number is expected to rise to 50% by year’s end.
1950 The New York Central places the first Budd RDC cars (“”Beeliners” on the NYC) in revenue service between Boston and Springfield MA.
1950 The Pennsylvania Railroad announces the beginning of “Keystone” freight service for less-than-carload freight. Five hundred boxcars and 3,000 containers are purchased. The new equipment along with higher freight train speeds are designed in part to compete with the New York Central’s “Pacemaker” service introduced in 1946.
1951 Last steam locomotive in passenger service on the Boston & Albany.
1951 The New York Central cancels its 125th Anniversary celebrations due to the Korean War and its poor financial condition.
1951 the New York Central ended passenger service on the St. Lawrence Division north of Philadelphia.
1951 Due to dieselization, the New York Central lays off 1,230 workers at its West Albany Shops.
1952 For the first time the number of diesel-electric locomotives on U.S. railroads exceeds the number of steamers, 19,082 to 18,489.
1953 the Rutland Railway abandoned the Chatham Division in New York State.
1953 The New York Central, at its 100th Anniversary celebration, announces that it expects to be completely dieselized east of Cleveland and all passenger service dieselized east of Detroit by the end of the year.
1953 Electric operations end at Cleveland Union Terminal. The new diesels save the New York Central $400,000 ($3.5 million in 2012 dollars) per year in operating costs.
1953 The last electric train runs through the Detroit River tunnel. It’s replaced by diesels.
1954 the New York Central System ran the last passenger train on the Ottawa Division.
1954 Robert R. Young officially gains control of the New York Central. Harold S. Vanderbilt is forced out, the last Vanderbilt to serve the New York Central.
1954 Robert Heller & Associates present the result of their passenger train study to representatives of the Pennsylvania, New York Central and Baltimore & Ohio railroads. The study finds that passengers are leaving trains for automobiles and airplanes and the railroads are unable to price their services by cost because so many of the rates are frozen by regulations. The railroads decline to follow any of the study’s recommendations to consolidate long-distance trains, most of which will be made under Amtrak.
1954 The New York Central begins its “Early Bird” fast freight service.
1954 New York Central President William White says he has made plans with Rail-Trailer Company of Chicago to introduce modern piggyback service on the NYC.
1955 The departure of the 20th Century Limited from New York is broadcast live on the Television show “Omnibus”.
1955 The Mechanical Research Committee, made up of representatives from six roads says four of its members will order new lightweight equipment. The Pennsylvania Railroad will order a “tubular” train from Budd, New York Central and New Haven will look into “Train X” or something similar and the Santa Fe is looking at high-level cars for its “El Capitan”. Baltimore & Ohio and Chesapeake & Ohio do not weigh in.
1956 New York Central’s high speed “Aerotrain” begins service between Detroit and Chicago. The train is withdrawn later in the year after many passengers complain of nausea on the lightweight cars.
1956 The New York Central christens its “Train X” “The Explorer” in ceremonies at Cleveland. It is then run to Columbus for the press. NYC has deleted a Baldwin-Lima-Hamilton Diesel-Hydraulic locomotive that was to have been at the end of the train. This increases the train’s instability and makes it more expensive to turn at the end of a run.
1956, the Saratoga Schuylerville Railroad was abandoned.
1957 the New York Central System officially abandoned the Ottawa Division from Rooseveltown to Ottawa and sold the land between the Racquette River and 2nd St. West in Cornwall to the St. Lawrence Seaway & Power Project, excluding the bridges.
1957 the New York, Ontario & Western Railroad was abandoned.
1957 it was revealed that the New York Central System was paid $2,280,000 as an incentive to abandon the Ottawa Division, so that the Seaway Project would not have to pay for a costly reroute plan for the railway.
1957 Canadian National Railways purchased the abandoned New York Central System Ottawa Division from Ottawa to 2nd St. West in Cornwall.
1957 Alfred J. Perlman introduces “Flexi-Van”. The cars reduce the dead weight and air drag of conventional TOFC service, but require special equipment.
1957 The last steam locomotive operates on the New York Central as 2-8-2 Class H-7a 1977 drops its fires at Riverside Yard in Cincinnati.
1957 Canadian National railways began to remove the rails of the abandoned New York Central Ottawa Division. They were to be used in Montreal.
1957 The New Haven and the New York Central test EMD’s FL-9 locomotive, capable of running from its own diesel prime movers or from a third rail.
1957 The New York Central ends its “Travel Tailored Schedules”, returning to head-end equipment leading long, slow trains. Alfred J. Perlman has designed the new policy to drive away passengers and make train discontinuance easier.
1957 New York Central Extra 4000 East (nee Train 90) out of Chicago derails at White Pigeon MI. The train was diverted off the Toledo Division onto the “Old Road” at Elkhart due to an earlier derailment east of Elkhart. The engineer, who had not checked for slow orders nor run on the line for three years, ran though a 15 mph slow-order turnout at 55 mph. One Railway Mail Clerk was killed, 23 Railway Mail clerks, 8 passengers and one train service employee were injured.
1957 The New York Central abandons its line from Rooseveltown to Ottawa, Ontario. In April, Canadian National will purchase the portion of the line between Cornwall and Ottawa.
1958 The New York Central introduces “Flexi-Van” service. The first route is New York [Weehawken] to Chicago.
1958 The New York Central stopped running passenger trains between Malone Junction and Lake Clear Junction.
1958  New York Central stopped their good commuter services between Malone, Valleyfield, Chateauguay and Montréal. Now operated by busses that can be lucky to cross the Mercier Bridge if traffic jams are not too heavy.
1958 the St. Lawrence Seaway Corporation began to dismantle the South Roosevelt International Bridge.
1958 The New York Central withdraws from The Pullman Company and begins staffing its own passenger trains.
1958 the United States Canada Railroad and the Champlain St. Lawrence Railroad officially merged into Canadian National Railways.
1958 Railway Age Magazine reports 1,377 active steamers on U.S. rails and 1,709 in Canada. Mikados (2-8-2) are the most common type still steaming. The editors add, “The future of steam is in a museum.”
1958 The New York Central dedicates its Robert R. Young yard at Elkhart, IN. It is NYC’s second large, computerized yard. It has been built to pre-sort cars coming to and from the Chicago area.
1958 The New York Central Railroad ends commuter service on the Putnam Division.
1959 Last sailing of the Weehawken ferry, connecting New York Central’s West Shore line with Manhattan.
1960 The New York Central drops its membership in the Railway Express Agency, citing large losses from the express business.
1960 The New York Central introduces “Super-Vans” – solid Flexi-Van trains operating at or near passenger train speeds between New York and Chicago.
1960 Demolition of the Grand Central Terminal office building begins to allow construction of the Pan Am Building.
1960 Senator John F. Kennedy begins a 14-hour whistle-stop tour through Michigan in Ann Arbor. He will tour the state aboard the private car of New York Central President Alfred Perlman.
1961 New York Central Railroad abandoned the Adirondack Division from Malone Junction to Gabriels. Access to the St. Lawrence & Adirondack Railway north of Malone Junction was made through an extension of trackage rights on Canadian National Railways Massena Subdivision from Helena to Huntingdon.
1961 The Boston & Albany, Ware River, Pittsfield & North Adams and Beech Creek Extension railroad companies all disappear into parent New York Central.
1961 the New York Central Railroad abandoned the St. Lawrence Division from Redwood to Theresa.
1961 the Rutland Railway ran for the last time.
1962 Stockholders in both the New York Central and Pennsylvania Railroads approve the Penn Central merger.
1962 The Trustees of the New Haven Railroad ask to be included in the Penn Central merger. The Presidents of the New York Central and Pennsylvania Railroads state they would rather see all the railroads of the Northeast united in a single system.
1962 The New York Central announces it has purchased $1.5 million in electronic communication systems. NYC claims this is the first application of railroads using automated data transmission.
1962 the North Roosevelt International Bridge was closed and the north span of the Three Nations Bridges opened.
1962 The State of New York amends its constitution to allow the state to guarantee bonds for the purchase of new commuter equipment on the New York Central, Long Island and New Haven railroads.
1963 the Rutland Railway sold their 50% ownership of the Lake Champlain bridge to the Central Vermont Railway Incorporated.
1964 The presidents of the Pennsylvania and New York Central Railroads sign an agreement in anticipation of the Penn Central merger that will provide job protection in the new company for Union employees. In turn the unions drop their opposition to the merger. Penn Central will be saddled with unnecessary employees throughout its life.
1964 The New York Central opens its first “Flexi-Flo” terminal, in Indianapolis. The system uses steel pipes to transfer loads directly from covered hoppers to trucks.
1964 President Johnson announces the settlement of a five-year dispute over work rules. The issue was the future of firemen aboard diesel locomotives. Under the plan, 100,000 union members will receive raises and other benefits in return for eliminating firemen’s jobs.
1965, New York Central System ran the last passenger train on the Adirondack Division.
1965 the St. Lawrence Seaway Authority began to demolish the North Roosevelt International Bridge.
1966 In a combination publicity stunt and test of how track functions under high speeds, a New York Central jet powered Rail Diesel Car hits 183.85 mph near Stryker, OH. Some of the data obtained from the test will be used in the design of the Metroliners.
1966 The New York Central breaks ground for Alfred E. Perlman Yard in Selkirk NY. It is the fifth and last large hump yard built by Perlman. It will have a capacity of 8,340 cars.
1967 Last run of New York Central’s “Empire State Express”
1967 Last run of New York Central’s “20th Century Limited”  A more prosaic numbered train protects the service.
1967 New York Central FA-2 #1102 becomes the last cab unit serviced at NYC’s Collinwood (OH) Shops.
1968 the Delaware & Hudson Railroad was put under the Dereco Railroad, which was owned by the Norfolk & Western Railway.
1968 The New York Central and Pennsylvania railroads merge to form Penn Central Transportation. To “protect competition”, the Norfolk & Western is given control of the Erie Lackawanna and Delaware & Hudson. Instead of merging with the two companies, they will be put under the umbrella of “Dereco”, a subsidiary created by N&W to manage the lines.
1970 Penn Central declares bankruptcy, at the time the largest bankruptcy in U.S. corporate history.
1971 the USA Government created Amtrak to take over rail passenger service in the United States.
1971 Canadian National Railways reopens a section of former NYC trackage in Cornwall. The relaid rails were on the former right-of-way from Wesco, a junction to the CNR main line, to the former site of Cornwall Junction, a stretch of 1.44 miles.
1972 Penn Central Transportation abandoned the Adirondack Division from Lake Placid to Snow Junction, along with the Piercefield and Tupper Lake Spurs.
1972 the Northern Central Railway decided that due to the damge done by Hurricane Agnes that they would end operations of their line.
1972 the Erie Lackawanna Railway was released by Dereco Railroad.
1973 the Norwood & St. Lawrence Railroad filed papers to get permission to abandon their line.
1974 the former Fonda, Johnstown & Gloversville Railroad reopened under the name of the Delaware Otsego Railroad.
1976 Penn Central Transportation abandoned the Adirondack Division from Lake Placid to Snow Junction, along with the Piercefield and Tupper Lake Spurs.
1976 Penn Central Transportation (rail division) merged with the Buffalo Creek Railroad; the Central Indiana Railway; the Central Railroad of New Jersey; the Chicago River & Indiana Railroad; the Erie Lackawanna Railway; the Lackawanna & Wyoming Valley Railway; the Lehigh & Hudson River Railway; the Lehigh Valley Railroad; the Niagara Junction Railway; the Pennsylvania-Reading Seashore Lines; and the Reading Company to create Consolidated Rail Corporation, also known as Conrail. The Ogdensburg Secondary was handed over to the Ogdensburg & Norwood Railway, as well as the Ogdensburg Spur, to operate. The line from Oswego to Syracuse became the Baldwinsville Sub; Woodard to Fulton was the Fulton Sub; Charlotte to Rochester was the Charlotte Running Track (track from there to Lake Beach was gone). Sometime afterwards the company abandoned from Mexico to Palaski. The line north of Fulton was sold to the Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation.
1977 the Ogdensburg & Norwood Railway was folded and the rails were operated by National Railway Utilization Corporation. They created the St. Lawrence Railroad to run trains on this short line.
1978 Michigan Northern takes delivery of two ex-D&H/Montour/NYC Baldwin RF-16 “Sharks”, the last two RF-16’s extant.
1979 The Kent-Barry-Eaton Connecting Railway starts operations between Grand Rapids and Vermontville on former Grand Valley/MC/NYC/PC/CR trackage. It is the first railroad in the U.S. operated by African-Americans.
1980 the St. Lawrence & Adirondack Railway, under Conrail control, abandoned their line in Malone to Malone Junction and northwards to Huntingdon.
1981 the Adirondack Railway declared bankruptcy and abandoned their operations.
1981 Conrail (ex-NYC) and Grand Trunk Western operations through downtown Battle Creek MI are consolidated onto the GTW tracks.
1982 Vermont Railway gained running rights over the Boston & Maine Railroad line from White Creek to Hoosick Junction.
1983 CNCP Niagara-Detroit is created by CP Rail and CN Rail to acquire the Canada Southern Railway.
1983 the Boston & Maine Railroad is purchased by Guilford Rail System.
1984 the Delaware Otsego Railroad was abandoned.
1985 The last railroad-run commuter service ends: The Pittsburgh & Lake Erie, Pittsburgh to College, PA.
1989 George Hamlett, who with his wife, Rachel, ran Club George for 44 years at Liberty and Seneca streets in downtown Utica, dies at age 78. The club is Utica’s oldest business continuously operated by an African-American. In its heyday, the club featured such greats as Count Basie, Lionel Hampton and Nat King Cole.
1991 Conrail sold the remnants of the original St. Lawrence Division to the Mohawk Adirondack & Northern Railroad. Later the MA&N aquired the Lowville & Beaver River Railroad.
1992 the Adirondack Centennial Railroad began operations from Thendara to Minnehaha, renegotiating the former agreement that the Adirondack Railway had with the State of New York.
1998 Warren County purchased the abandoned North Creek Branch of the Delaware & Hudson Railway from North Creek to Keefes.
1998 the St. Lawrence Racquette River Railroad was replaced with a new company called the New York Ogdensburg Railway.
1999 Conrail was jointly purchased by Norfolk Southern Corporation and CSX Transport Corporation. CSX got the lines in the northern portion of New York State.
2000, the Adirondack Scenic Railroad opened from Lake Placid to Saranac Lake.
2002 the Vermont Rail System acquired the New York & Ogdensburg Railway. This brought all former Rutland Railway lines still in operation back under one operator.
2002 the Ottawa Central Railway removed the North Lead track in Ottawa from the station to just south of the Science & Tech Museum. This was former NYC Ottawa Division trackage.
2004 Last scheduled run of 1962-vintage former New York Central ACMU cars on Metro-North.
2006 the Upper Hudson River Railroad opened from Thurman to Thousand Acres Resort (Hadley).
2010 A perfume manufacturer announces what it calls “the first perfume dedicated to a rail line”. The manufacturer claims to have captured the essence of Manhattan’s former New York Central High Line, now a park.
2012 Amtrak begins 110 mph operation on its line between Kalamazoo MI and Porter IN on the former MC/NYC mainline. This is the first line outside of the Northeast Corridor to operate at those speeds.
2013 Amtrak assumes control of the State-owned former New York Central line between Kalamazoo and Dearborn MI.




Photo Shows Hillary Clinton, George W. Bush Together at Reagan’s Funeral

photo has been posted on Twitter of Democratic presidential candidate Hillary Clinton and former President George W. Bush embracing at Nancy Reagan’s funeral.

The candid shot was tweeted out by CNN’s political director, who wrote “This may be the best photo from Mrs. Reagan’s funeral.”

Bush and Clinton have a long political history. Clinton’s husband Bill defeated Bush’s father to win election to the White House in 1992. Bush then defeated Bill Clinton’s vice president, Al Gore, to win his election to the White House eight years later.

The photo received a variety of responses on Twitter since being posted.

Rebecca Savransky, The Hill

Bernie Sanders Is the Best Choice for Attaining the System We Need

This Tuesday, voters in Democratic primaries in Ohio, Illinois, Missouri, and Florida face an important choice. In my view, both candidates are able and decent people, and it’s important we not fall into the trap of denigrating or demonizing the one we disagree with. I believe Hillary Clinton is the best choice of president for the system we now have. But the system we now have is dysfunctional and unsustainable because the moneyed interests control too much of it. Bernie Sanders is the best choice for attaining the system we need, because he’s leading a movement to reform it.

If you reside in any of these states, I urge you to vote for Bernie. If you know of anyone who lives in any of these states, please contact them and explain why it’s important to vote for Bernie. If you can possibly get to one of these states and help get out the vote for Bernie, I urge you to do so.

By Robert Reich, Robert Reich’s Facebook Page

Portland, Windham Filling Gaps Along The Air Line Trail

For years, the descriptions of the southern portion of the Air Line Trail noted it started at “the old cranberry bog” in East Hampton and ended at an “old rusted railroad bridge” over the Willimantic River.
Maps are going to have to be edited and redrawn, however. And that’s a good thing as East Hampton’s neighbor, Portland, has now officially climbed aboard the former railroad-turned-hiking trail and that rusted bridge has come to life again after being decked with concrete slabs and wooden railings. Bikers, hikers and walkers will now be able to cross the Willimantic River into Lebanon or Willimantic when it officially opens in the spring.
Full article: